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Thursday, August 9, 2012


This assigment aims to reach the levels which are decided on Transportation Development Plan in 2005-2015.

Transportation was explained clearly and detailly in that plan. Starting from 1950’s , the immagration becoming a serious problem for cities, that causes the cities growned unplannedly, and transportation problem exactly occured. That transportation problems couldnt solved well, they only solved by daily solutions. That means , the connections between land use and transportation, skipped and big problems occured, because getting from someplace to other take a lot of time, and that daily solutions are not connected each other already, the people send to second place on transportation and plans made only for vehicles, and people want to be a owner of cars. That increase of car number means that people need wider roads, new cross roads and all of them reply the “journey request management” that means the solutions are all daily not long term.

We can see that transportation planinng omitted everytime, and in some cities transportation plan and zoning plans are not connected each other, land use and transportation ignored, and the transportation plans are not upgraded well, they are becoming old fashioned and cant reply the needs of days.

 First of all, the zoning plans and transportations plans should work together and transportation plans have to be a critical plan.All infrasacture developments made from transportation plans and public transportation should increase, new transportation systems should be used in cities and they have to be connected each other. In the other side, pedestrian and bicycle ways should be created and upgraded, parking lots, the quality of public transportion, sea usage, railway usage shoul improve and connect each other.

Tuesday, February 21, 2012


Written by Murat Aydın

Aim and Methodology

Aim of this study is to analyze and evaluate the main characteristics of urban development in North America and Canada, Former Soviet Union, Oceania, Latin America, Middle East and North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and East Asia.

The evaluation will include urbanization trends, models of city structure and major urban problems.

When evaluating urbanization trends of the regions, we find out that urbanization rate is not related with total population and population growth. In World urban system, mostly urbanized region is North America and Canada. Two-tihrd of the population (over 165 million) resides in settlements with a population of 5.000 or more. Only 86 million people live in small towns, villages and rural areas. In fact, one of the key features of North America is metropolitanism. Although there are only 8 "millionaire" cities in the United States and one in Canada, the number of "milllionaire metros" has increased to 39 in the United States and 3 in Canada. In North America (United States), 2008 population is estimated as nearly 315 million, and the population growth rate is %0,97 (earthtrends.wri.org).

The Republics of Soviet Union were a part of highly centralized federal union that was dominated by the Russian SFSR. In 1991, the population the population was 293 million.

FSU was the least urbanized among more developed regions of the modern world. Urbanization proceeded at a dramatic pace after revolution: %18 of urban population in 1913, over %50 in the 1950's. In 1989, %66 of total population were living in urban areas. Most urbanized areas are generally the capital of new states. In 1989, there were 296 cities with more than 100.000 population. %23of those had more than 1 million inhabitants. Including worlds one of the largest cities with aproximately 14 million people in its metropolitan area.

When we look at East Asia, it does not seem possible to make certain generalization like the other regions because of countries' differences. Japan has approximately 128 million people and China is the world’s most populous country with 1.5 billion of total population. However the urbanization rates are different from between in Japan and China. Japan is nearly complete urbanized, but China has rural areas at 60%.

With more than 69% of its population living in cities, Latin America is the most urbanized region in the developing vvorid and urbanizalion rate is quite close to Europe and North America (roughly 75%). It is the region of Developing/Less developed Countries with the combination of rapid rural to urban migration and high natural population growth. In 1950, some 66 cities in Latin America had populations of at least 100.000 and none exceeded 5 million. In 1990, at least 37 cities surpassed the 1 million. In the 2000s, 41.8% of the urban population lived in the region's 50 cities exceeding 1 million inhabitants.

When we look a little bit different region like The Middle-East, it can be seen that there is a historical and political region of Africa-Eurasia with no clear boundaries. The Middle –East and North Africa is slightly more than 50% urbanized, having doubled the percentage of urban population since 1950. 13 nations are already urbanized more than 50% of their population in cities. Kuwait, Qatar, and United Arab Emirates with over 99% urban population. Israel is at 91%, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia and Iraq are fairly urbanized at respectively 83%, 77%, and %74. In region, growth rate is an average of 2.1%. So the Middle East and North Africa region has one of the most world’s most rapidly expanding populations. Urban share of total population is 60% in 2000, and it is expected to exceed 70% by 2015. Cairo and Tehran are the most important cities of region and contains 25% of total population.

Oceania is a region which consists of numerous islands in the Pasific. Australia covers 90% of the total area. The urban population of the region is the smallest of the 10 world regions. Also the continent is the smallest one, but Australia is the 6th largest country. Despite the urban population is small, it is one of the most urbanized regions of the world at 71%. Especially Australia (87%) and New Zealand (85%) are leading this situation. The growth rate of total population of Oceania region is 1.21 from 2005 to 2010 (earthtrends.wri.org).

South Asia is characterized as a whole by a low level of urbanization, %25. ındeed, this one of the least urbanized regions of the world. Total population of the region is approximately 1,6 billion, and population growth rate is at %1 level according to earthtrendswri.org. In South Asia, there is a rapid growth in cities because of rural-to-urban migration, and this is one of the main factors that shape cities.

And the last region of this study is Sub-Saharan Africa. Suıb-saharan is the term used to describe the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara desert. Africa is the 2nd largest continent and it covers 23% of the world’s total land area and also, it is the 2nd most populous continent after Asia. The growth rate of total population of Sub-Saharan Africa is 2.42 (earthtrends.wri.org), and this means that there is a huge population growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. Most of Africa’s population lives in the Sub-Saharan. Over 1/3 of population live in urban areas, and in the next 30 years that figure may increase to over half the continent’s population. Sub-Saharan Africa is one of the least urbanized regions of the developing world (38%).

Evolution of urban system changes in every region around the world urban system, every single one of them affected by different factors and as a result showed different evolution steps. For example, Colonization is the most responsible issue for the establishment of cities in China, on the other hand Japan is not colonial.

Cities originated thousands years ago in the Middle-East. The first urban settlements appeared as early as the 4th millennium B.C. in Mesopotamia. When we look at the process of urbanization; settlements were generally located on the largest rivers such as the Nile, Tigris, and Euphrates. Trade is also one of the most important factors for choosing location for cities. The largest cities of the Middle East developed not only because of trade but also political circumstances, such as Baghdad, Cairo, Istanbul, and Tehran. The development of the petroleum industry has provided some employment, largely in terms of labor for construction and services.

When we look at a clearly different region, Oceania, we can see a completely different evolution of urban system from Middle-East. The first inhabitants of Australia were the nomadic Aborigines, They lived rural Until 1960s, but afters a few decades they began to move to urban areas but generally to the peripheral areas. European explorers found Sydney in 1788 and by years, natural sources discovered at the time of industrial revolution of Australia make the city a favorite colony. Sydney Harbor is one of the world’s best natural harbors, so it can be described as beginning point of development in Oceania. At that time, the population of city has been increased overly in 1850s because of the Gold Rush. Also, the gold rush at that time speed up the development of the social and political systems. However, the goldfields began to decline in 1860s. In 19th century, the effects of industrialism and capitalism were very important to urban process of Oceania cities. After the World War II, a policy that reasoned the admission of emigrants was very important rush aspect of development.

Colonization is also most responsible issue for the development and establishment of cities in Sub-Saharan Africa. To ensure the supply of raw materials the colonial settlements developed, so the inter-regional differences in terms of development increased.

In FSU, Modern urban system was in place prior to economic and political changes which began in 1917. Urban centers were sites of administration, defense for regions (closed cities) and trade centers and with regard to trade, there are 2 types of cities which are local trade and long distance trade.

3 main historical stages can be identified for evolution of FSU urban system: Pre-soviet (pre-1917), Soviet (1917-1990) and Transition period (after 1990s). Pre-soviet period is characterized by expansion of the state. Country remained rural and agricultural, and cities performed administrative and trading roles. The importance given to the cities can be understood from the names given to the pre-revolutionary history: non-slavic beginnings, the middle age and cities of Kievan Rus, Moscow Rus, Russian Empire and Urban Revival and Capitalist period.

In Soviet period, a new era of urban system evolution began. A dramatic shift in the political and economic character of the country led by the Communist Party transformed the Russian Empire into a highly urbanized and industrialized society within just a few decades. This period characterized by a rapid, centrally planned and government controlled transformation to an urban industrial economy. The cities were crowded, and standard of living was low. When Stalin came in charge, a transition from rigid central control to a somewhat softer. But also social and spatial inequalities grown. Transition period was from a totally State-controlled economy to political fragmantation, rise of liberal economies, personal freedoms and greater cooperation with Western nations.

Speaking of Latin American cities, it's clearly seen that evolution of urban system is affected by two historic periods. Pre-Columbian cities have ptayed a major role in Latin American civilization formore than 1500 years. They were major administrative and marketing centers as we1l as religious sites. Monumental buildings, including pyramids and astronomical observatories of religious significance, were often linked by massive avenues. In European Urbanization, 4 types of urban settlements emerged. Settlements located on active pre- Columbian urban sites with large indigenous populations and productive agricultural areas.

North American and Canadian cities' urban system development are bothly effected three main movement: Merchantilism (1790-1840), Capitalism (1840-1975) and Global capitalism (1975-...). In Merchantilist period, the economy was based on agriculture, and the urbanizaton level was low. Largest cities were founded along the Atlantic Coast with New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore and Boston; and the other 3 largest cities were located along the routes that traditionally led into the heart of North America: Ner Orleans, Quebec and Montreal.

Capitalism involved investments by the owners of capital in labor and equipment to produce goods: The development of factory system, realization of scale economies, and nationalization of urban system. Big cities started to emerge. Urban population has grown from %8 to over %60's from 1830 to 1975. Cities have completed their transition from an agricultural to an industiralized and finance based structure. Wars have also effected this period. First World War accelerated the growth of manufacturing, and after Second World War large urban areas were renewed. Post-war years were a period of rapid growth based on atural population increase and accelerating personal consumption. Suburbanization is laso a significant feature of this era between 1935-1975.

The era of global capitalismappears to be marked by a decrease of dominance of North American corporations, new technologies, low contribution of agriculture to national wealth, increaing importance of service industries and decreasing employment of manufacturing. A number of new features in the spatial organizaton of the North American urban system during this era: urban regions are extended, major metropolitan areas have become transaction centers and birthrate, immigration and intercity migration have declined. To summarize, in mid 19th century, urban system extended to midwest by rail and late 19th century urban system developed in west coast.

Though the realm, or the Indian subcontinent as it is often termed, was influenced by various cultures and subcultures, five distinctive civilizatîons made significant inroads. The civilization of the Indus Valley (3000 to 1500 B.C.): the Aryan Hindus (since 1500 B.C.); the Dravidians (since about 200 B.C); the Muslims (since the eighth century); and the West Europeans (since the fifteenth century). These civilizations also affected the urban forms and patterns of South Asia, with the impact of Hindu, Dravidian, Muslim, and West European civilizations much greater than that of the Indus Valley civilization.

Speaking of urban characteristics, all of the country and regions affected by their historical development periods an we can see footprints of past civilizations.

For South Asia, there are three main models that shaped cities.

The Colonial-based city model is developed because of the need for trade and military reinforce-ments required a waterfront location acces-sible to oceangoing ships because the colonial power operated from Europe. A minimal port faciliry was a prerequisite and was the starting porat of the city. The traditional bazaar-based city is widespread in South Asia and has certain features that date back to precolonial times. Ordinarily, the city grows with a trade function originating from agricultural ex-change, temple location, transport node, or various administrative activities. Usually, a crossroad is on a linear business concentration, and is formed where commodity sales dominate The functional demands created by activities in the colonial, the bazaar-type, and the planned city generated interaction among them. The British administrative requirements in the traditional cities re-sulted in the establishment of Civil Lines, generally on the periphery of the city. The Civil Lines were composed of a courthouse, treasury, jail, hospital, police facilities, club houses, and residential quarters for the high administrative and judicial officials.

Internal structure of North American cities dominated by several components: transportation, location of retail, office and manufacture and people in cities.

In North America, transportation system is automobile oriented, and this factor caused suburbanization movement after late 19th century, and home and work places seperated. Ring roads surrounded cities, and wide roads spread to the urban area. For manufacture areas, the ara four major groups: central clusters, decentralized clusters, random spreads and peripheral patterns. Retail areas are decentralized with planning policies away from the core of the city. Otherwise, office buildings takes place of retail activities in the CBD. But after 1970's, office buildings were also decentralized to suburbs. In Atlanta, %43 of office buildings were located in suburbs in 1980, but in 1986 this rate grown to %60.

Population densities are generally highest close to the CBD and decrease regularly from the center to periphery, but this pattern has changed substantially in 1950's. Population density is fairly even over metropolitan area because of income, short working weeks and decentralization of manufacturing and employment.

For Latin cities, there are two types of internal structure. In traditional internal structure of Latin cities, urban life centered on the main plaza. All major govermental offices, the great majority of commercial activities, and all of the social amenities from
banks and theaters to restaurants and clubes (clubs) were located within a short distance of the plaza. As a result, employment opportunities were concentrated in the cily centers. The dualistic nature of Latin American societies severely limited social and economic mobility. This increased the inequal distribution of public services In modern Latin cities, a distinctive structural pattern in which traditional elements of Latin American culture have been merged with modernizing process. The inner city is dominated by CBD, commercial spine and elite residential sector and concentric zones.

Region has an important role about the city structure in Middle-East. Effects of Islam can be seen on the structure obviously. Most of the cities in this region overlap with the Islamic city model. The Islamic city is a compact mass of residences, open courtyard houses which create a cellular urban texture. Privacy is very important in this model. Entrances are L shaped and not facing one another; to prevent seeing into a house, walls on the alleyways are windowless, and separate guest rooms or courtyards for the man are present. Islamic city includes a permanent central market, mosques, shrines, public baths, city walls, citadel, inns, and small markets in the individual quarters. The Islamic city logically organized with narrow alleyways for climate purposes. In addition to the Islamic model, primate and dual city models can be seen at East Asia.

In Sub-Saharan Africa, rural life is more effective. At the same time, population has increasing terribly and causes migration from rural to urban. Therefore, the slums emerged and has a big portion of urban areas. Sub-Saharan Africa cities are generally colonial, and also there are some primate cities such as Nairobi and Lagos.

In FSU, territories segregated along classlines. State remold the shape of the city and determine its operating structure, such as elaborate public transportation system predicated on an enforced low levels of private car ownership. In city centres; downtown function not associated with the headquarters of the corporate economy. Scarce amenities are equally accessible by the absence of a price-driven land-allocation mechanism. The ongoing attractiveness of the centers explains a particularly Soviet pattern of gentrification. The city centers are also centers af political ritual. Workers housing areas are surrounded by Growing around railway circlesa nd semicircles. There are several types of suburbs such as satellite cities and captured villages. The internal structure of the Soviet city conforms to the zonal pattern.

There are two types of cities which are described as socialist and non-socialist in East Asia. Japan and North Korea have the non-socialist cities, and China and South Korea represents the socialist one. In Japan, capitalist system is the main factor of affecting urban character. There are some Chinese cities such as Shangai which are affected from the Japanese cities. On the other hand, Beijing is the most important city of being socialist.
The urban characteristics of cities in Oceania depend on the harbor, and transportation of raw materials and international trade has an important role about improvement of these cities. Therefore, most of the Oceania cities are described as “colonial city”.
Primate city type can also be seen. Sydney is not the capital city of Australia, but the rest of the country depends on Sydney for cultural, economic, political, and major transportation needs. Melbourne is also another primate in Australia. However, Canberra is the “planned city” as the capital.
Finally urban problems are generally the same in every region, but in some regions there are spesific problems related with urban characteristics.
The rapid growth of the cities of the Middle-East and North Africa region have resulted in big problems. Many of the difficulties are similar with the other developing country’s cities. Some of these are housing shortages, inadequate services, underemployement and overconcentration of primate cities. In addition, this region has some different problems related with oil-based rapid expansion of the economies. It causes influx of foreign workers, indigenous rural immigrants and formation of squatter settlements, inadequate city planning and big wars. The rapidity of urban development has placed a great strain on the municipal services of the cities. Electrical blackouts, inadequate water pressure, environmental problems are the other problems in this region.
Urban problems in FSU can be bring together in three topics: Planning-decision making and chronic problems. Planning, Decision-making problems are optimization of the city network, size and functions; spatial segregation of different types of urban land-use, sectoral tensions between sectors and city goals as a result of economic planning, lack of coordination, and weakness of financial position. Chronic problems of Soviet cities are; Dire shortages in housing and overcrowding, overindustrialization, limited intraurban mobility, social alienation, crime and environmental pollution.

In North American cities, there is a politically fragmented structure with thousand of municipalities, townships and school districts. This results in inequalities of access to employment, education, amenities, housing and safety. Inner city and outer city are too seperated from each other, and living population is quite different. Local governments are in competition with each other to maximize tax base and minimize expenditures, attractin clean light industry and shoppin centers and creating zones for large lots and high-income families. The house and land prices are growing rapidly, environmental damage and overcrowding are occuring with continued growth. Also enironmental problems, such as erathquakes in San Fransisco and los Angeles and hurricane in New Orleans.

Several important urban problems, inherent in the urbanization process of the developing countries, are also prevalent in South Asian cities, among them the post-WorId War II urban population explosion, housing shortage, insufficient development of utilities (water supply, drainage, sewerage, and electric supply), increasing water and air polluion, and financial incapability.
The push out of the rural economy, coupled with accentuated natural growth of the urban areas, has augmented the city population, particularly in large cities. This has happened without a reciprocal increase in the manufacturing sector, resulting in large-scale unemployment

Primacy and urban sprawl are the main problems in Oceaina. In residental areas, density is very low and it causes an urban sprawl and also infrastructure problem. Environmental quality is another big issue in Oceania, and it is caused by globalization. Another problem is unemployment in some areas where Aborigines live. Social divorsion is another problem as a result of unbalanced growth trends. Public transport is not being used efficient because of high percentage of private car owners.

Speaking of Sub-Saharan Africa, this region is relatively problematic. To summarize, slum areas, environmental problems and migration leads the other problems.

Finally, Latin America's urban problems can be summarized as rapid population growth, extensive areas of substandard housing, inadequate public services, unemployment and underemployment, traffic congestion and environmental degradation

Monday, January 30, 2012

Disaster Mitigation -Küçükçekmece

Küçükçekmece is a large, crowded suburb on the European side of Istanbul. It is 23 km out of the city, beyond Atatürk Airport. The population of the area reaches 600,000. This area covers 118 km².
The population of Küçükçekmece is growing fast and it is acquiring schools, supermarkets, shopping centres and other facilities. However in most parts of Küçükçekmece, working class neighbourhood exists, with much crime in streets. Most of the housing is illegally built slums. Most of the people are recent migrants from Anatolia, increasingly from the troubled south-east.
Transportation decisions that has effective role in macroform development of Istanbul,
is seen to be decisive also in the development of Kucukcekmece district. E-5 and TEM highway are the most important factors affecting the development of the district.
At the eastern border of the district today, the industry began to evolve into service, also Basın Express way is located there. At Istanbul Environmental Master Plan, this axis is defined as an area of the CBD interaction.

Küçükçekmece district is located at the West side of Istanbul, east of Küçükçekmece Lake, among E-5 and TEM highway.

At the west part of the district, it is located Küçükçekmece Lake, at the south-east part of the district, it is located Atatürk Airport, at the south-west part of the district, it is located Ambarlı Port, at the north part of the district, it is located Başakşehir district and at the east part of the district, it is located Basın Express way.

Küçükçekmece district had become a district at 1989. Later at 1992 Avcılar and at 2009 Başakşehir splited up from Küçükçekmece and had become independent districts.

Küçükçekmece is on the Marmara coast, on the eastern shore (nearest the city) of an inlet of the Marmara called Küçükçekmece Gölü. Across the inlet is the district of Avcılar and the campus of Istanbul University. The inlet is connected to the Sea of Marmara by a very narrow channel so the water is not salty. The streams running into the inlet now carry industrial waste and the inlet is highly polluted but efforts are being made to get it clean again. There used be wildlife and many kinds of birds and efforts to get the wildlife back are taking effect slowly.

The lagoon has almost always been controlled by whichever imperial power was in control of Istanbul as the road from the city to Europe passed by here.
Until the 1950s Küçükçekmece was a popular weekend excursion, people would come by train from Istanbul to swim, fish for eels or just sit by the water, while children played in the woods.
However the land here is flat, rising slightly away from the shore, and as such is easily built upon so as bigger and bigger roads have been built the area has become industrial and crowded with huge housing projects.
This development is still going on and is indeed accelerated as the TEM motorway to Europe passes through here now. The Ikitelli area in particular is very industrial and still more factories are being built. The Nuclear Energy Research center is on the lake side.
A long-lost ancient Roman city Bathonea was found in 2009 to be located 20km from Istanbul in Turkey. These excavations are conducted under the direction of Dr. Şengül Aydıngün, a professor of the Associate Professor of the Kocaeli University. It distances just 20 kilometres away from Istanbul. Bathonea is located in a historical landscape eight kilometres wide. It has been hidden under farm lands, in a small inlet west of Istanbul on the banks of Lake Küçükçekmece. Some remains of this city could be submerged in the waters of this lake. A researcher found in a middle of the lake a lighthouse that belongs to Bathonea. If this is verified, it'll represent one of just three Roman lighthouses known to have existed in the eastern Mediterranean, next to those at Alexandria and Patara.


Küçükçekmece Lake, located in Istanbul, 10 units of living space is one of the natural ecological and biological aspects are important.

The areas between Küçükçekmece - Terkos, Büyükçekmece - Terkos, Golden Horn – Terkos, Ömerli Dam - Riva Delta creates a corridor between the Black Sea and the Marmara Sea, which preserves the Istanbul's climate.

Turkey's 122 Important Plant Areas (OBA) study in the Kucukcekmece district in Istanbul, also including the area Important Plant Areas "in the pastures of western Istanbul Important Plant Areas”, the hills just west of the city of Istanbul remained intact on calcareous grassland, scrub the surface appeared dry pasture rocks and pieces of characters includes acid.

Kucukcekmece Lake, open water and marsh plant communities are also within the limits of the OBA's. OBA 's are very rich vegetations that grow on the lime plant, and are home to many rare plants throughout the country. At “Important Plant Areas”, at global scale and in Turkey in three or less under the risk of rare plants found in the registered location. OBA's is not under the protection of a large part of the picture, immediately adjacent to the rapidly expanding Istanbul is under great pressure.

The effect of the North Anatolian Fault Zone, in the first degree earthquake at risk of silt in the province of Istanbul, construction compliance is known that the most problematic in terms of floors.
Kucukcekmece District is located at first and second degree seismic regions and these zones are seen in the areas where are largely damaged in the past experiences.

When we examine the geological structure of the alluvial fields we recognize there were various formations. Geologically hazardous areas depending on the type of rock particularly as landslides, rock falls, and all types of mass movements, including swelling, blistering, living areas with high potential as a result of weathering of carbonate rocks, the formation of underground cavities, areas of subsidence are likely to be listed.

Global climate change is one of the most important problems in Istanbul together with the expected increase in sudden floods. Hydrological origin in danger areas, river beds, flood deposits, and flood hazard areas, lakes and seas within the domain of the protected areas currently designated by İSKİ, the coastal strip to the surface and underground water level has reached, is located in the marsh areas.

Rain precipitation streets turn into streams. After some floods occurred in the breeding in 1993 at Ayamama Creek, operations has started. Ayamama River flows by drawing a zigzag route in a residential area where the water level rises due to decrease in the rate of flow of water and therefore water overflows occur.
To pass off the highway and the river bed of the stream in a culvert to be a sharp zigzags, is known to be effective in some parts of the reform have not considered.

Küçükçekmece coastal town located at the shore in a shallow steep plateau from north to south. There are very steep slopes along the banks of the lake-side town. For these reasons, an probable earthquake can cause landslide.
The distribution and causes of landslides and slope shifts the size of the earthquake, perpendicular slope, slope material strength, water saturation and plant varies according to the state.

When we analyze the expected earthquake in Istanbul, (violence and sizes, recurrence probabilities) different types of rock may develop soil liquefaction at potential areas. The existing structures, carries more risk at possible earthquake.

Current Land Use
The main problem on Küçükçekmece district that industrial areas compact with residential and the other functions. Also there are some public functions such as nuclear energy building, a military zone, large educational area and duty building.

The other main problem is that high earthquake risk and geological forbidden areas. That threats effect the Küçükçekceme’s natural and ecological balance. High density residential areas, commercial and industrial areas locate on that ecological areas. Also lack of gren areas and social infrastracture are shown in Küçükçekmce.
Land Use and Explosive Meterials

Main explosive meterial risk locate on industrial areas such as Sefaköy industrial zone. The other explosive meterial threats gas stations, LPG storages.

Irregular Urbanization

The irregular urbanization spread to wide range of Küçükçekmece such as Kanarya,
Cumhuriyet, Yeni Mahalle, Cennet,Yeşilova, Gültepe, Yeşilova, Sultan Murat, Kartaltepe, Kemal Paşa, Fevzi Çakmak, İnönü, Söğütlü Çeşme, Mehmet Akif, Atatürk,Yarım Burgaz neighborhoods.
The ground of Küçükçemece is not conductive, that irregular urbanization increase that conductive level, increase the flood risk.
Total Risk Areas

Considiring the natural brinks that risky areas engage large areas. Commercial areas, nuclear central and some of current residential areas are under the risk. That risky areas threat the future of the Küçükçekmece.
Suggestions to Create Sustainable Natural Environment

Küçükçekme Lake is one of the ecological and biological natural life area and it effects the climate of the İstanbul. There will some fuctional activities locates on lake and keep the green areas, forests so that Küçükçekmece center will connect with that functional areas.

To reactivate the ecological features of lake, lake will be cleaned and rehabilate, then recover the ecologic coridor between Blacksea and Marmara Sea.

There will be green areas, exposition areas, university along the lake and there will be connection between the North agricultural areas and lake.

On Flood risky areas, creating the new borders and belts which come from 100 years flood analysis from DSİ. 1st belt areas must be green areas, 2nd belt and 3rd belt low density residential areas and that buildings have to checked by muncipality and these buildings have to have inundation floor.

On Earthquake risky areas, again create zones 1 to 3 and there will be new building codes for educational, police stations, health centers and for residential areas density will increase 1 to 3 zones.

In liquefaction risky areas, high technology meterials will be used in buildings, and early earthquake alarm systems will be integrated.

For renew the damaged buildings, there will be a credit system. Social infrastracture which are used in disaster will be expanded . There will be a new law for explosive material areas, and they are checked peridiocally.

For increase the ground conductive, passive green areas will be created on flood risky areas. These new recrational areas will be used on a disaster for getting together. These areas are pre-housing, security, and storage areas.These areas will be big enough and they always be empty for disaster moment.

Professional disaster groups will be created and they will create an awarness on public opinion.

Saturday, January 21, 2012

Green Building Design Must Guide Our Future Building Policies

Conservationist edifice designing module metamorphose a much sought-after specialty as the Sandwich humans is strained to writing the affordability of its structure for the middling national soul. As we focus on the rates of tuberculosis and the sizes of our homes to speak both of the more problems of status vary, we expect to comprehend solutions that can both experience our expectations piece reaction our event on the surround.

Saturday, January 14, 2012


General Information of Spijikenisse

The new town of Spijikenisse is located in the South of the Netherlands near Rotterdam. On the one side there is Rotterdam, it has port which is the largest in the world. On the other side there are little towns. The total area of Spijekinesse is 30.23 km² (land 26.16 km², water 4.07 km²).

Around 300 BC the first dwellings were built by small families. They have located there, because Spjikenisse is suitable for fishing and hunting. It is result of being next to water and forest sources. The name of Spijkenisse is originated from its shape “spite neus” (sharp nose) It is a peninsula.

Urban Development
Spijkenisse was much isolated from the mainland-Rotterdam- until the building of a bridge, which connected Spijkenisse to the city of Rotterdam. Before this bridge Spijkenisse had almost no change of inhabitants, because of this bridge the diversity of the inhabitants of Spijkenisse changed a lot. Spijkenisse is situated on the island of Voorne-Putten. It is a new town with the population approximately 75.000 (2006). Over the past forty years, Spijkenisse has developed from a small village to a medium-sized town, with large child-friendly housing estates.

Population Growth
Spijkenisse had a population growth during 1960’s and 1970’s. After the Second World War, the village had 2.700 inhabitants experienced a rapid growth as a result of expansion of Rotterdam’s port into Spijkenisse’s backyard. Thousands of people who have worked for this port were accommodated on new estates around the original village.
 In 1960 its population was: 3.700
 In 1976 its population was: 32.000. It was not the end point of Spijikenisse’s development.
To cope with the migration from the large cities into the rural areas, the government designated a number of centers of urban growth. One of these centers was Spijkenisse. In 1977 Spijikenisse became a municipality. After that the municipality has become responsible to built at least 16.500 dwelling units within 15 years. This sudden growth caused some problems about Spijikenisse. There was a question: does it should be town?

There are a lot of people moving from Rotterdam to Spijkenisse and it seems that the city is losing its own identity. Therefore the city has made a plan which involves giving the heart of the city some mode and luxury. 10.000 dwelling units were built until now and the population is 75.000 (2006). It will increase, because there should be 6000 dwelling units more.
Green Town
Spijikenisse is often described as a green town. In the plans which made for Spijkenisse there were purposes to bring the countryside into the town, and it has been successful. Green areas around the town run into the town as fingers. In the town center, most populated area, there is green area called Center Park.
Health Care
Spijkenisse is frequently described as the educational centre of the region. It is center also at health care. There are hospitals and various residential care homes for the elderly in Spijkenisse.
Art and Culture
There are a lot of art and culture places. These provide settlers take courses and have various social activities. These places are designed to emphasize city.


There are different types of houses:
 Penthouse with view over the river.
 A single-family dwelling on a peaceful estate
 An old people’s flat near the town centre
Busy Town
There is no lack of activity in Spijkenisse. The town has a number of industrial estates totaling around a hundred hectares in area. There are also various shopping centers. Retail trade, business services, construction and industry are the main foundations of the local economy, while education and health care are also major employers. Employment in Spijkenisse has risen sharply, and there are approximately 18.700 full-time jobs (one person works for four people)
During the town’s development process, the main point was constructing large numbers of dwellings. Nowadays, the municipality focuses on the quality of the residential and living environment. These goals have to be reached particularly through radical renovation projects.
Another important area of attention is public safety. Spijkenisse is one of the safest towns in the country, and the municipality wants to retain and improve this position.
Town Square Plan

The Spijkenisse locates on natural area and people have choosen this place to settle, because it is appropriate for hunting and fishing. The town is close to Rotterdam, has the largest port in the world. After the town was connected to Rotterdam, the population of the town started to increase sharply.
It became a municipality and the municipality made a plan to produce houses. The town is also the center- education, health, entertainment, shopping- of the region The number of people wanting to live in Spijkenisse increases. Therefore, the municipality prepare a plan for 2010. In this plan there are purposes to make Spijkenisse more attractive and safe.
General Information of Nieuwegein
Nieuwegein is a municipality and city in the province of Utrecht. It is bordered Dutchon the north by the city of Utrecht, the provincial capital. It is separated from Vianen to the south by the river Lek and borders on Ijsselstein in the west and Houten in the east.

During the sixties it was clear that Utrecht was too small for the number of inhabitants of it’s town. New living-areas had become designated for the house need. There was space free in the south area of Utrecht. The municipality Jutphaas and Vreeswijk were located in this area. These municipalities joined together on the first of July 1971 to the municipality “Nieuwegein”. Nieuwegein will function as an extension municipality for the city of Utrecht.

By bringing the police force supervision at the A-12 road on the ground area of Utrecht, the border was changed by the first of January 1973.
Nieuwegein stood ± 83 hectares ground between this Rijksweg, the Merwedekanaal and Amsterdam-Rijnkanaal. By 1 January 1989 once again a modification of the borders with the municipalities Ijselstijn, Linschoten, Utrecht and Vleuten-De Meern took place. This happened within the framework of a municipal division in the west of the province Utrecht.
Nieuwegein count approximately 25,700 households. Of this 54.8% is buy, 33.4% social hiring, are 8.6% remaining hiring and 3.2% is unknown. With the percentage of 33.4% social hiring it lies against the average of the Netherlands. This is due to systematically arises of the city. By conditions clearly at the decision-making in 1971, a good social proportion has arisen. The social house file becomes for a major part by the Mitros looks after. The Mitros are of the largest social house construction society of the edge city.

In the year 2008 Nieuwegein has approximately 62,000 inhabitants, living in more than 26,000 houses. Its size enables Nieuwegein to offer the citizens all kinds of facilities, although it has at the same time remained small enough to be convenient and surveyable.
There is ample employment in Nieuwegein: roughly 40,000 people have their workplace here. Nieuwegein has today reached the end of its growth. The town has now entered into a phase in which it will have to focus on the management and maintenance of the present town. Nieuwegein fulfils these tasks from its vision on the city. It aims to be a green, clean and safe town that people know and appreciate. A town in which all people are willing and able to take their responsibilities. Which has an administration that performs its duties and does this well, and a society that shows initiative.
In the first years of its existence, Nieuwegein attracted much attention from within the Netherlands, but also from abroad. This new town was not just the result of spreading out one old residential and working community - as was the case in centres of urban growth like Zoetermeer, Lelystad or Almere - but the spreading out of the two former village centres of Jutphaas and Vreeswijk. Both had their own characters and their own long histories, but both had always remained connected to the city of Utrecht.
New districts with historical names, such as De Batau, Doorslag, Galecop, Huis de Geer and Zuilenstein, popped up like mushrooms. The countryside was urbanized. Rustic living surrounded by urban facilities; that was the motto. Besides the construction of houses, industry and services were also given a place in the form of modern, spacious industrial areas and business centres. The central location of Nieuwegein in the Netherlands proved to offer great advantages to these sectors.

Variation in Houses

Health Care
Nieuwegein is a city for anyone and everyone. In the area of health care, there is an elaborate facility network which combines general practitioners, social work, domestic care, home nursing and physiotherapy. There are also local and regional care facilities, such as nursing homes, rest homes and surrogate family homes for both the mentally and physically disabled. Moreover, Nieuwegein houses the Sint Antonius hospital. This hospital enjoys great fame for its heart and lung specializations.

From nursery school to district school
There is also a great diversity in the educational institutions established in Nieuwegein. For the tiny tots, there are day nurseries and play groups. In almost every district there are three types of primary schools for the older children: Roman Catholic schools, protestant schools and public schools. In addition, there is Montessori education. The city also has several secondary schools, so that students do not need to travel outside their own town. Nieuwegein has an institution for industrial and vocational training and there are facilities for adult education.

Theatre De Kom and the modern Plaza Cinema together constitute the cultural offering of the city centre. It will suit the tastes of both lovers of entertainment and artistic connoisseurs. Featuring performances by theatre groups, music ensembles and other artists, the stylish theatre is a cultural attraction for the entire region. Moreover, Nieuwegein offers excellent facilities for those who practice art themselves.

Sports, recreation and relaxation
In the area of sports, Nieuwegein also has ample opportunities. Many national sports federations have selected Nieuwegein as their place of domicile. Of course, those who practice sports play the central role. More than fifty percent of the Nieuwegein inhabitants practice sports actively. They have a choice of numerous sports facilities. The Oudegein city park and the children's farm with its animal pastures are also much loved in Nieuwegein. Whoever is looking for nightly entertainment, can visit one of the establishments in the city centre, in the districts or in the old village centres of Vreeswijk and Jutphaas.

Saturday, January 7, 2012


Transportation means shifting of goods, people and energy in the cheapest way, soonish and surely. To give service opportunities by urban functions suc as residential, working, educational and recreational are also occure thanks to transportation infrastructure in urban scale. Therefore, it can not be denied that the line is a significant part of urban system.  The most preferential aim of the trahsportation planning is providing the accessibility of all functions like that residential, working, industrial, educational and health services, and recreational. In another words, it aims to make conditions more convenient in land use and transportation relations priority.
There is a direct correlation between the allocation of land uses throughout the county and transportation. Transportation planning and land use planning support to each other mainly. The circulation system should be developed in coordination with the various general plan land use elements adopted by the county and cities. As development occurs, the circulation systems are designed to accommodate planned land uses. Transportation planning depends on the circulation elements of these plans for formulating regional plan goals, objectives and policies (www.scrtpa.org).
Land use and transportation planning are related with the each other through many aspects. It can be classified that four main determining factor which are accessibility, location choice, land costs and rents, and users. Especially quantitative methods are explicated that related with transportation and land use integration in this paper.
This research aims to analyse the integration of land use and transportation planning at all urban areas. It includes the steps of searching literatures about the subject, scanning these papers and evaluations of them. This paper purposes to comprehend the basic theorotical knowledges and variable approaches based on this subject. The main methodology that will be used is searching and explicating of articles. Within the context of this paper, it will be discussed that the integration of land use planing and transportation planing. It will be focused on how the two concepts affect eachother and how they plan in the urban.
Figure 1: Interaction of land use and transportation planning.
The relation between transportation planning and land use decisions is a guiding mark of an urban development. According to the users, the environmental quality with land use units is determining factor for the location choice. Development transportation planning obtains this level of quality of environment. In the frame of the interaction between transportation planning and residential areas, accessibility and access distances, location choice, land costs and rents, impacts on users and users’ preferences will be examined with existing theories in this article.
For example; accessibility will be explained with the levels of accessibility. They display how the landuse activities take on a shape with travel links and their accessibility levels. On the other hand location choice will be determined with numerical methods in urban and regional planning. Lowry’s model, Vedia Dökmeci’s multipurpose landuse model (Vedia Dökmeci – Çok Amaçlı Arazi Kullanım Modeli), Hansen Model, Topaz Model and Distribution of Transportation Systems Model are some of the models which will be explained with location choice.
Also, land costs and rents will be featured with some models, too. Some of them are Von Thünen, Wingo, Alonso’s Monocentric Urban Development Models, and some of them are Christaller and Lösch’s Polycentric Urban Development Models. All of these approaches are based on the relationship between land rents and transportation costs. Finally, users’ preferences and impacts on users wil be shown with some examples like students who have home based school trips, workers who have home based work trips and the others who have home based other activities trips.
One of the most important factors of relation between land use and transportation planning is accessibility. Researches show that the accessibility is the most significant determining of land use. It shows that the appropriateness or inaptitude of the integration of an activity with the other activities (Black, 1981). If many activities are located closely and transportation links are sufficient, it provides to high level of accessibility. If the activities are located far from each other and the links are not sufficient, it leads to low level of accessibility (Blunden and Black, 1981).
Figure 2: Accessibility levels (Blunden and Black, 1981).
According to Blunden and Black, accessibility levels divide into four groups.
  1. Land use activities are far and travel links are too weak:
If the land use activities are far from eachother and the transportation system which is linked these activities are too weak, lower level accessibility exists. This is the worst alternative in all these compositions.
  1. Land use activities are close and travel links are too weak:
Considered the close activities and too weak travel links, there are mid level accessibility appears. Although the travel links are too weak, proximity of land use activities is a reducing motivation.
  1. Land use activities are far and travel links are very strong:
Contrary to the clause taking place the clause above, if land use activities are far from eachother but travel links are very strong, mid level accessibility exists. Eventhough the distance between the activities is great, situation of the travel links is the determining factor on the accessibility level.
  1. Land use activities are close and travel links are very strong:
The best level is the higher level accessibility comes into being close land use activities and very strong travel links.
Location choice is one of the most important determining factors about the relation of the transportation planning and land use activities decisions. Beacuse many factors are put into the play with the location decisions like travel costs, travel distances, convenience of travel links. There are many articles, methods and social and mathematical models which explained the determining factor named location choice according to relation between transport systems and laduse activity planning. In this title, all these components will be interpreted especially on the numerical models  in urban and regional planning called Lowry’s model, Vedia Dökmeci’s multipurpose landuse model (Vedia Dökmeci’nin Çok Amaçlı Arazi Kullanım Modeli), Hansen Model, Topaz Model and Distribution of Transportation Systems Model.
Modelling of residential and working areas and location choice and size of them are the most common applications about the land use modelling. Location choice of residential and working areas is the most fundamental determinings on distribution of transportation demand. Therefore, it is very necessary factor in transportation planning process. Not only the physical planning is effective on decisions, but also socio-economic factors such as level of income, developments of life standarts, population and occupation moves are effective. Especially, in developing countries, socio-economic factors are more impressive than physicals. It can not be denied that the effect of transportation on urban land use decisions. For instance; if a new airport is built in a city, new usage will develop on its closer environment. Depending on changes of activity system, some models were improved. One of them is Lowry’s Model. This model analyzes that distribution of population, commerce and service occupation based on accessibility of residential and working areas. The diagram of the Lowry’s model is seen above.
Figure 3: Lowry’s model diagram.
Model has three main functions. One of them is assessment the family workers population and workers for services which they need. The other is assessment the residential area population and spatial distribution of service workers. And finally, it asigns that the amount of transportation according to new settlement arrangement. There are some formulas about this model.
  1. The population of the family whose the workers,
N (1) = f
  1. The number of transportation system which serves to number of main labor force,
  1. Service functions,
N (2) = f (1) = faN(1) = a
  1. Labor force who serves to the population in the city,
(2) = aN (2) =
  1. General equilibrium,
(m) =
  1. Total labor force of system,
E =
E =
Furthermore, transportation systems are determining factor for the location choice of the industrial buildings. In transportation system, economy of scale development provides the urban ang regional development. Producers’ primary purpose is to maximize their profits. Also, considered the formation of firms which attend to costs of transportation, they aim is to minimize these costs for the location choice. Especially supplying and distributing the goods have gravity for them.
The firms tend to raw materials want to set uf a factory near the raw materials. Because it is obvious that huge amount of material using and various dimensions of productions exist. Therefore, it is necessary that to minimize the input transportation cost. On the other hand, the firms tend to market are in the settlement which is near the market area (Sullivan, 1999: 51). It wants to be near the raw materials or market place, transportation system is determining factor its location.
Another model which explains the land use and transportation planning quantitatively is Vedia Dökmeci’s Multipurpose Land Use Model (Vedia Dökmeci – Çok Amaçlı Arazi Kullanım Modeli). A city has different functions which served many purposes and many effects on eachother. The organization of the city has relation networks about these functions. For example, shopping malls want to be close with customers, first of all. Industrial factories want to be close with labor force sources and the other firms. On the other hand people want to be close with their works, schools, homes and shopping malls.
There are two main aims of this model. Provide to maximum efficiency and minimize to transportation costs. Rents and accessibility matrixes are defined in the model which is made with activity components. This model obtains to decide to most effective alternative. A city which has gird transportation links, an equation desined. This equation serves the maximum efficiency.
Max z =
Z is the total revenue which gained from landuse activities there.  is the interrelation between the i and j alnduse activities. And,  is the distance between i and j landuse activities.
The other purpose that affects the land use decisions is minimizing the transportation costs. With this purpose, ıt is aimed that transportation system between the other activities in the city should be minimized. Every location of land use activity unit is related to the location of others. It is chosen that minimizing the human and propety acting between these units. With this purpose an equation was done.
E (a) =
E (a) is the total efficiency of the alternative,  is the co-efficient which shows the importance of k purpose,  is efficiency of (a) alternative according to k puroıse and finally n is the number of purpose.
The other model is Hansen Model which explains the location choice of residental areas with the other land use activities and related with the transportation system. There are many different variables for explaining how the landuse activities aspecially residental areas develop, and what kinds of effects on it.
According to this model, demands for residental units are equal the empty areas there and accessibility index. People want to equilibrium between land use planning and travel costs, generally.
is population on j city,  is total demand in the city,  is empty areas in j city and  is the accessibility index.
The other model which is the related to location choice about relation between transportation system and land use activities is TOPAZ meaned the Technics of the Modelling Land Use and Transportation System Together.This model assignes the optimum transportation links with using traditional transportation planning and land use datas. Fort he location choice of the land use activities, it must be known how much the road create traffic congestion, how much residental unit and working unit built, and what the development effects are on works. There are many sub-groups in the city and all demands are different according to this. Topaz model consists of different sub-groups. First of all it is assesed that the dimensions of land use activity and transportation link which served this activity. The alternative transportation links develop and one of them chose according to cos-benefit analysis.
The last model is Transportation Distribution Model. This model asignes that how the transportation system which caused by basing point in the city, diffuses the other points. The transportation between two basing points is used as average of the times on the dense hours or transportation value per a day. Generally a gravity model uses to calculate the distribution of transportation. This model is;
is the number of outgoing people to j region from i region,  is transportation emanated from i region,  is transportation and labor force to j region from the other regions,  is distance between i and j regions, and a is the emphasis which affects to regional distribution.
The other important factor that affect to transportation and land use planning is land costs and rents. There are many models which explain the relation between transportation system and land use planning. We know any models does not consists of all inputs in the city and any model is not adequate this relation. However, this section some models will be interpreted about land costs and rents. We used the numerical models to explain the location choice above, th other social models will be used to explain the land costs and rents about the interrelation between transportation system and land use planning.
About the modelling of land costs and rents many studies were exist. Some of them are Von Thünen, Wingo, Alonso’s Monocentric Urban Development Models, and some of them are Christaller and Lösch’s Polycentric Urban Development Models. All of these approaches are based on the relationship between land rents and transportation costs.
Figure 4: Transportation and urban land rents relation (Alonso, 1964).
For instance; according to this model, all kind of the job opportunities in the city centre and at least one member of a family have to trip to the city centre for working. Also the trips which for out of the working purpose have an unimportant value in the portion of the local transportation system. Therefore, the alternative costs of the trips are accepted zero’0’. Through these assumptions fix the factors which are out of the costs of the trip, trip costs are determining factor on the location choice of residential areas. Therefore, all of the households go in for a competition to position in the central area for minimizing the costs of the transportation.
Figure 5: Offered rents functions and land uses in monocentric urban model (O’Sullivan,     1996).
According to Marin and Altıntaş, the function of the relationship between travel costs and residential costs shows the people’s demands for the living in the different places of city. The functiosn of the residential costs have to be a negative curve for the locational equilibrium. Travel costs fall to the central area, but the ground rents rise at the same time. Considered the shape, the monocentric city theory predicts the negative relationship between the distance to center and the rent which arises from land use. In Polycentric Urban Areas, intersection of roads and centers cause to changing of land rents.
Figure 6: Urban land use and land rents profile (Kılınçaslan, 2002).
Furthermore, built spaces and parcels and price of land are clear variances on land values. (Fejarang, 1993)
2.4. USERS
While the land use locations affect the users, user preferences are affected on land use activity locations. This interaction is duble option.
When the households choice the different travel patterns, the travel costs and travel times are very effective through the family budget. On the other hand, for the location choice, the travel time is more determining than the distance and households can be decided the settling out of the city called suburban areas. The development of the public transportation system can accelerate this process and the movement of the households can increase. Several researhes show that with the household characteristics, house and neighbourliness quality is very drastic on these movements, too. Especially in the developed countries, it is obviously seen that the role of the public policies on the residental areas, income level and differences of household types speed up this movements.
For instance students can be analyzed as home based school transporters. Empirical results indicate that the characteristics of child like age, gender, and ethnicity, and employment and work flexibility characteristics of the parents have strong impacts on the mode choice decisions. In addition, the impacts of some of these attributes on the choice of mode to school are different from the corresponding impacts on the choice of mode from school. The distance between home and school is found to strongly and negatively impact the choice of walking to and from school, with the impact being stronger for walking to school. Furthermore, the distance and school location has a big role for children’s mode choice for the school trip. The analysis shows that walk travel time is the most policy-relevant factor affecting the decision to walk to school. The spatial distribution of schools and residences will not be enough to change travel behavior.
Another factor is safety for mode choice of students. Parents express concern about traffic dangers and the risk of abduction or harassment (Martin and Carlson, 2005). Planners suggest a need for better integration of land use, transportation, and school planning. Including children’s distance from school as a planning criterion could be an effective way to change community design and encourage walking.
There are some determining factor about relation between land use activities and transportation planning. We explained them in the sections above. Together with these, we explain these determining factors about some zones that residental and working areas, industrial areas, and educational areas.
Figure 7: Daily activities determining on transportation planning.
The relation between transportation planning and residental and working areas is a guiding mark of an urban development. According to the users, the environmental quality with residental units is determining factor for the location choice. Development transportation planning obtains this level of quality of environment. In the frame of the interaction between transportation planning and residental areas, accessibility and access distances, land costs, impacts on users and users’ preferences will be examined.
Beginning with the question that how the accessibility factor of transportation planning affects the residental and working areas, variance of the users’ preferences will be analyzed. Firstly, the proximity to transportation systems is very effective factor on the users’ preferences. Goods and services are obtained every unit of the residential and working areas efficiently. Also, the users’ preferences relate to travels between home and work directly in accordance with the time and place conception. Related with this subtitle, the researches which are done by Mayo, Friedmann and Lerman display the households’ car ownership decisions are connected with location of the residential areas. (Mehmet Marin, Hakan Altıntaş- Konut yer seçimi ulaşım etkileşim teorileri).
American sociologists, Kasarda and Wilson, claimed that the major distances between residential areas and working areas and transportation system lead to work-home disequilibrium. These men developed the theory called Spatial Mismatch (Mekansal Uyumsuzluk) which is about the disequilibrium and carrying with negative effects on socio-economic situations. This theory explains that how the residental areas and business districts are effected by transportation system. For example; the unefficiency of the transportation system like inaccessible areas, narrow roads, inadequate parking areas leads to crappy business opportunities and maladept housing units in the old cities, and as a result suburban localities appears and residental areas exit from the business district with own transportation system, and the distance between these two landuses grows.
Another factor which is suitable to understand the relationship of the transportation system with residential areas and working areas is landcosts. The most important theories which trying to understand this interrelation can be grouped as Technical Theories (Urban Movement Systems), Economical Theories (Urban as a Market), and Social and Sociological Theories ( Community and Urban Space).(Mehmet Marin, Hakan Altıntaş- Konut yer seçimi ulaşım etkileşim teorileri). These models can be identified in different groups by theselves.
For instance economical models are dividen in some groups and monocentric city model is the most important to understand relation between residental areas and working areas with transportation system.  The monocentric city model is applied in the residential and working landuse. According to this model, all kind of the job opportunities in the city centre and at least one member of a family have to trip to the city centre for working. Also the trips which for out of the working purpose have an unimportant value in the portion of the local transportation system. Therefore, the alternative costs of the trips are accepted zero’0’.
Through these assumptions fix the factors which are out of the costs of the trip, trip costs are determining factor on the location choice of residential areas. Therefore, all of the households go in for a competition to position in the central area for minimizing the costs of the transportation.
The cities which have the major ındustry and productıon development, called ındustrıal cities. (Keleş, 1997: 30). Manufactoring cities or industrial cities need huge transportation systems. Because the technologies of the transportation system affects the location choices of the industrial plants. These industrial buildings which producing for distant market territory, require advanced accessibility to ensure raw material and to market their products. (İsbir, Ankara: 12). It’s imperious that for consuming products, accesssibility of markets have to be strong. (Sabuncuoğlu, Tokal, 1987: 193).
If a city have strong transportation system, it’s economic structure develops obviously. Especially through the public transportation obtains rapid carriage and low cost per unit in the city or out of the city; competitive advantage will appear. Costs of transportation will head in this competitive.
On the other hand, transportation systems are determining factor for the location choice of the industrial buildings. In transportation system, economies of scale development provide the urban ang regional development. Commercial houses sum the common properties and carry them to transportation points by using express highway, sea transport, railway transport and the others. (Sullivan, 1999: 20). Producers’ primary purpose is to maximize their profits. Also, considered the formation of firms which attend to costs of transportation, they aim is to minimize these costs for the location choice. Especially supplying and distributing the goods have gravity for them.
The firms tend to raw materials want to set uf a factory near the raw materials. Because it is obvious that huge amount of material using and various dimensions of productions exist. Therefore, it is necessary that to minimize the input transportation cost. On the other hand, the firms tend to market are in the settlement which is near the market area. (Sullivan, 1999: 51). It wants to be near the raw materials or market place, transportation system is determining factor its location.
One of the most important points of integration is between the educational areas and transportation system. This title contributes towards an overall understanding of the school-travel behaviour of children and the related interdependencies among the travel patterns of parents and children. In the last years, understanding of the activity-travel patterns of children is becoming increasingly important to various policy makers such as transportation planners, urban planners, public-health officials, and the other diciplines. (Boarnet et al. 2005; DiGuiseppi et al. 1997; Fischbeck and Huey 2003; McDonald 2005; and McMillan 2003).
Empirical results indicate that the characteristics of child like age, gender, and ethnicity, and employment and work flexibility characteristics of the parents have strong impacts on the mode choice decisions. In addition, the impacts of some of these attributes on the choice of mode to school are different from the corresponding impacts on the choice of mode from school. The distance between home and school is found to strongly and negatively impact the choice of walking to and from school, with the impact being stronger for walking to school.
The school travel is a critical component of the overall daily travel behaviour of children and it is big factor for understanding the importance of relationship between the transport and land use planning. Before the making a plan, policy makers should recognize the habits and preferences of children.
In briefly it is obvious that the locations of schools, parents and childrens preferences, costs and distances of schools are more determining factors in the relationship between landuse and transportation planing.
Integration of land use and transportation planning was evaluated in a framework that includes this relation’s determining factors that are accessibility, location choice, land costs and rents, and users. Also these factors were explained with the urban zones such as residential, working, industrial, and educational areas. The results of this assessment not only display that the effects of land use activities on the transportation system, but also display that the effects of trabsportation system onthe land use activities.  There are many components of land use such as structure, size, capacity, locate on urban system, function, relation with the other functions, accessibility level, and socio-ecomonic frame that affect to transport system directly or indirectly. Moreover, transportation system affects to land use activity sigcificantly. Decision of transportation investment makes an effect called multiplier effect (çarpan etkisi) on lands, initially. After the beginning of usage, value of lands which are around the road increases. By creating new commercial areas, it makes an effect raises to production.
Figure 8: Integration of between the components of transportation and land use planning (Lemberg, 1977).
In this figure, it can be seen easily that the circulation of the main components of the land use and transportation factors. According to this sceheme, land use decisions, trips, transportation necessities, travel links, accessibility, and land costs are in a continuous circulation. It always circles in this integration process.

Saturday, December 31, 2011

Urban Design Project in Kadıköy Turkey 1/500 Scale

Hello readers, in this article i will explain our urban design project which is on Kadıköy, İstanbul. Kadıköy is a transit movement center because of the big bus terminals and 3 ports also there is a historic train station which's name is Haydarpaşa. For these objects there are a lot of people movement.

We started with creating the main pedestration ways through the seaside and we want to create a culture island . In this new island we have 3 museums (city museum, toy museum and nature museum), one theatre, one handcraft center and a cultural center also we changed the status of Haydarpaşa from railway station to railway museum, also we use railways for pedestration and bike way like New York City example.
On the south of the area there are a big space for car parking, we use it for car park, sport,cultural activities and green areas. For pedestrians we create some posters and structures on their ways.
Consequently, we get out the car movement in this area, we use underground system to get people Kadıköy, also we create the biggest culture center in Turkey.