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Monday, January 30, 2012

Disaster Mitigation -Küçükçekmece

Küçükçekmece is a large, crowded suburb on the European side of Istanbul. It is 23 km out of the city, beyond Atatürk Airport. The population of the area reaches 600,000. This area covers 118 km².
The population of Küçükçekmece is growing fast and it is acquiring schools, supermarkets, shopping centres and other facilities. However in most parts of Küçükçekmece, working class neighbourhood exists, with much crime in streets. Most of the housing is illegally built slums. Most of the people are recent migrants from Anatolia, increasingly from the troubled south-east.
Transportation decisions that has effective role in macroform development of Istanbul,
is seen to be decisive also in the development of Kucukcekmece district. E-5 and TEM highway are the most important factors affecting the development of the district.
At the eastern border of the district today, the industry began to evolve into service, also Basın Express way is located there. At Istanbul Environmental Master Plan, this axis is defined as an area of the CBD interaction.

Küçükçekmece district is located at the West side of Istanbul, east of Küçükçekmece Lake, among E-5 and TEM highway.

At the west part of the district, it is located Küçükçekmece Lake, at the south-east part of the district, it is located Atatürk Airport, at the south-west part of the district, it is located Ambarlı Port, at the north part of the district, it is located Başakşehir district and at the east part of the district, it is located Basın Express way.

Küçükçekmece district had become a district at 1989. Later at 1992 Avcılar and at 2009 Başakşehir splited up from Küçükçekmece and had become independent districts.

Küçükçekmece is on the Marmara coast, on the eastern shore (nearest the city) of an inlet of the Marmara called Küçükçekmece Gölü. Across the inlet is the district of Avcılar and the campus of Istanbul University. The inlet is connected to the Sea of Marmara by a very narrow channel so the water is not salty. The streams running into the inlet now carry industrial waste and the inlet is highly polluted but efforts are being made to get it clean again. There used be wildlife and many kinds of birds and efforts to get the wildlife back are taking effect slowly.

The lagoon has almost always been controlled by whichever imperial power was in control of Istanbul as the road from the city to Europe passed by here.
Until the 1950s Küçükçekmece was a popular weekend excursion, people would come by train from Istanbul to swim, fish for eels or just sit by the water, while children played in the woods.
However the land here is flat, rising slightly away from the shore, and as such is easily built upon so as bigger and bigger roads have been built the area has become industrial and crowded with huge housing projects.
This development is still going on and is indeed accelerated as the TEM motorway to Europe passes through here now. The Ikitelli area in particular is very industrial and still more factories are being built. The Nuclear Energy Research center is on the lake side.
A long-lost ancient Roman city Bathonea was found in 2009 to be located 20km from Istanbul in Turkey. These excavations are conducted under the direction of Dr. Şengül Aydıngün, a professor of the Associate Professor of the Kocaeli University. It distances just 20 kilometres away from Istanbul. Bathonea is located in a historical landscape eight kilometres wide. It has been hidden under farm lands, in a small inlet west of Istanbul on the banks of Lake Küçükçekmece. Some remains of this city could be submerged in the waters of this lake. A researcher found in a middle of the lake a lighthouse that belongs to Bathonea. If this is verified, it'll represent one of just three Roman lighthouses known to have existed in the eastern Mediterranean, next to those at Alexandria and Patara.


Küçükçekmece Lake, located in Istanbul, 10 units of living space is one of the natural ecological and biological aspects are important.

The areas between Küçükçekmece - Terkos, Büyükçekmece - Terkos, Golden Horn – Terkos, Ömerli Dam - Riva Delta creates a corridor between the Black Sea and the Marmara Sea, which preserves the Istanbul's climate.

Turkey's 122 Important Plant Areas (OBA) study in the Kucukcekmece district in Istanbul, also including the area Important Plant Areas "in the pastures of western Istanbul Important Plant Areas”, the hills just west of the city of Istanbul remained intact on calcareous grassland, scrub the surface appeared dry pasture rocks and pieces of characters includes acid.

Kucukcekmece Lake, open water and marsh plant communities are also within the limits of the OBA's. OBA 's are very rich vegetations that grow on the lime plant, and are home to many rare plants throughout the country. At “Important Plant Areas”, at global scale and in Turkey in three or less under the risk of rare plants found in the registered location. OBA's is not under the protection of a large part of the picture, immediately adjacent to the rapidly expanding Istanbul is under great pressure.

The effect of the North Anatolian Fault Zone, in the first degree earthquake at risk of silt in the province of Istanbul, construction compliance is known that the most problematic in terms of floors.
Kucukcekmece District is located at first and second degree seismic regions and these zones are seen in the areas where are largely damaged in the past experiences.

When we examine the geological structure of the alluvial fields we recognize there were various formations. Geologically hazardous areas depending on the type of rock particularly as landslides, rock falls, and all types of mass movements, including swelling, blistering, living areas with high potential as a result of weathering of carbonate rocks, the formation of underground cavities, areas of subsidence are likely to be listed.

Global climate change is one of the most important problems in Istanbul together with the expected increase in sudden floods. Hydrological origin in danger areas, river beds, flood deposits, and flood hazard areas, lakes and seas within the domain of the protected areas currently designated by İSKİ, the coastal strip to the surface and underground water level has reached, is located in the marsh areas.

Rain precipitation streets turn into streams. After some floods occurred in the breeding in 1993 at Ayamama Creek, operations has started. Ayamama River flows by drawing a zigzag route in a residential area where the water level rises due to decrease in the rate of flow of water and therefore water overflows occur.
To pass off the highway and the river bed of the stream in a culvert to be a sharp zigzags, is known to be effective in some parts of the reform have not considered.

Küçükçekmece coastal town located at the shore in a shallow steep plateau from north to south. There are very steep slopes along the banks of the lake-side town. For these reasons, an probable earthquake can cause landslide.
The distribution and causes of landslides and slope shifts the size of the earthquake, perpendicular slope, slope material strength, water saturation and plant varies according to the state.

When we analyze the expected earthquake in Istanbul, (violence and sizes, recurrence probabilities) different types of rock may develop soil liquefaction at potential areas. The existing structures, carries more risk at possible earthquake.

Current Land Use
The main problem on Küçükçekmece district that industrial areas compact with residential and the other functions. Also there are some public functions such as nuclear energy building, a military zone, large educational area and duty building.

The other main problem is that high earthquake risk and geological forbidden areas. That threats effect the Küçükçekceme’s natural and ecological balance. High density residential areas, commercial and industrial areas locate on that ecological areas. Also lack of gren areas and social infrastracture are shown in Küçükçekmce.
Land Use and Explosive Meterials

Main explosive meterial risk locate on industrial areas such as Sefaköy industrial zone. The other explosive meterial threats gas stations, LPG storages.

Irregular Urbanization

The irregular urbanization spread to wide range of Küçükçekmece such as Kanarya,
Cumhuriyet, Yeni Mahalle, Cennet,Yeşilova, Gültepe, Yeşilova, Sultan Murat, Kartaltepe, Kemal Paşa, Fevzi Çakmak, İnönü, Söğütlü Çeşme, Mehmet Akif, Atatürk,Yarım Burgaz neighborhoods.
The ground of Küçükçemece is not conductive, that irregular urbanization increase that conductive level, increase the flood risk.
Total Risk Areas

Considiring the natural brinks that risky areas engage large areas. Commercial areas, nuclear central and some of current residential areas are under the risk. That risky areas threat the future of the Küçükçekmece.
Suggestions to Create Sustainable Natural Environment

Küçükçekme Lake is one of the ecological and biological natural life area and it effects the climate of the İstanbul. There will some fuctional activities locates on lake and keep the green areas, forests so that Küçükçekmece center will connect with that functional areas.

To reactivate the ecological features of lake, lake will be cleaned and rehabilate, then recover the ecologic coridor between Blacksea and Marmara Sea.

There will be green areas, exposition areas, university along the lake and there will be connection between the North agricultural areas and lake.

On Flood risky areas, creating the new borders and belts which come from 100 years flood analysis from DSİ. 1st belt areas must be green areas, 2nd belt and 3rd belt low density residential areas and that buildings have to checked by muncipality and these buildings have to have inundation floor.

On Earthquake risky areas, again create zones 1 to 3 and there will be new building codes for educational, police stations, health centers and for residential areas density will increase 1 to 3 zones.

In liquefaction risky areas, high technology meterials will be used in buildings, and early earthquake alarm systems will be integrated.

For renew the damaged buildings, there will be a credit system. Social infrastracture which are used in disaster will be expanded . There will be a new law for explosive material areas, and they are checked peridiocally.

For increase the ground conductive, passive green areas will be created on flood risky areas. These new recrational areas will be used on a disaster for getting together. These areas are pre-housing, security, and storage areas.These areas will be big enough and they always be empty for disaster moment.

Professional disaster groups will be created and they will create an awarness on public opinion.

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